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THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC DIPLOMACY ON KUWAITI -JAPENESE RELATIONS
Author: Dr NADA AL MUTAWA
Date: 2/5/2010
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A COPYRIGHTED  PAPER

THE CENTER OF STRATEGIC AND FUTURE STUDIES

KUWAIT UNIVERSITY

 

 

AL-MUTAWA,N,2010)    

Al Mutawa ,  Nada ,S, The Effect of Economic  Diplomacy on “Kuwaiti – Japanese” Relations

center of strategic and future studies ,Kuwait university press 2010)  )

 

 

 

 

The Effect of Economic  Diplomacy on “Kuwaiti – Japanese” Relations

 

 

Dr. Nada Al-Mutawa

 

Preface

The concern of this report is to analyze some of the main elements that  influence changes and development of  Kuwait`s foreign policy  ,taking into consideration the new diplomatic trend that was launched  in 2004 which is  the "Economic diplomacy" .

Organized around the economic diplomacy are three events ,the strategic shift of Kuwait`s foreign policy from being politically oriented to economic diplomacy in 2004 ,   the Asian trip by HRH the emir of Kuwait sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Sabah, when he was a prime minister2004  , and sheikh Nasir al sabah Kuwait`s prime minister`s trip to japan2007  , through development of the concepts of diplomacy and combining  economic diplomacy  with  peaceful activities . 

 

Acknowledgement

In the preparation of this report , I have benefited from comments of the president of the center of strategic and future studies in Kuwait university ,Dr yousef gloom, in addition discussion with  colleagues and professors.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Economic regionalism became a marked feature in the international system since 1990 , through many changes , such as  the enlargement of Europe and the pan- regional Asia –Pacific Economic Corporation , as well as North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA) , and Diplomacy  was often thought of as being concerned with peaceful activities only (Bartson R.P.Modern Diplomacy third edition Pearson 2006) , but today developments led  regionalism and modern diplomacy into a wide content , that goes beyond the narrow political concept .

Within the  Arab world  Diplomacy   has its  traditional sense  of being  politically focused  , and  engaged in political relations , but recently    there has been  a growing trend towards  realizing the importance of  economic relations ,acting parallel  to political relations ,through new features of a diplomatic process  , and  since Kuwait`s foreign policy and external diplomacy recently   became  heavily economically oriented ,

 this report  focuses on Kuwait’s gradual involvement in  diplomatic economy  , through its presidency of the  Gulf Corporation Council GCC in 2003 -2004 when it   formulated   and advanced, influencing   regional organizations to become economically based( note :Kuwait hosted the first economic conference under the umbrella of the  the arab league in January 2009)  , relating its  policies to economy .   therefore the report  focuses on Japan  being one of the countries that HRH  the Emir of Kuwait sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad led the route of an  economic oriented visit to Asia , and  since Japan was one of the  distinguished  places to stop during the visit ,  plus  the fact that  a new political and economic reality was  formulating and  becoming part of Kuwait’s  diplomatic structure ,  the paper  handles the effect of the economic diplomacy on Kuwaiti –Japanese relationship  , Japan being   a country that transformed    crisis it faced in the past  into  an incentive for economic and technological advancement, and is seeking to enhance its relations with the GCC countries through economic and developmental cooperation,    and Kuwait being  ambitious to enhance its economic and investment attractiveness in the area based on its passing the phase of security fears ,  and entering a new phase of intensifying its  economic diplomacy within  its foreign  policy .

Examining   the mutual visions and interests in the Kuwaiti Japanese relation, and stating its different stages in the past , present, and future ,taking into consideration the phase of initiating economic diplomacy during Kuwait’s periodical presidency of GCC countries in 2003-2004.

, the report considers it as  the phase of initiating the economic trend within the foreign policy  .

The report examines the strategic shift towards economy`s  effects  upon the Kuwaiti-Asian relations Particularly the Kuwaiti-Japanese relations  Through  highlighting  the features of this relationship , its development and capitalizing on its strength  .

The report is based on the following four  points :

First: The specific dimensions of initiating  the strategy of  Kuwaiti-Japanese relations in decision making entities in the two countries, and the role of transferring the course of Kuwait`s diplomacy toward economy and implementing the strategy through heading  a visit to  east Asia  ,at the same time, i.e. activating the economic diplomacy which is the trend of Kuwait foreign policy.

 

Second: A brief about the history of Japanese -Gulf relations that date back to the year 1880 when the Japanese visits started for exploring commercial opportunities in the Gulf area. Later the Kuwaiti Japanese relations developed both politically an economically after exchange of diplomatic representation in the sixties. They further developed in view of the new role played by Japan in the gulf region  post cold war .

 

Third: The report also handles “Kuwait and Tokyo Declaration”, which reinforced the bilateral relations during the visit of H.E. the Prime Minister Sheikh Naser Al-Mohammed Al-Sabah to Japan in 2007. The declaration dealt with several issues including the Kuwaiti initiative to increase its oil production , strengthen technical cooperation in the upstream and other oil sectors education, environment, security, UN reform, in addition to the phases of Kuwait and Japan attempts to enter the phase of economic development and political stability together by highlighting the phases in which such relations passed including the attempt to achieve balance within exchanged economic and political dependency and shedding light upon points of mutual agreement.

 

Fourth:  recommendations for further development of this relationship  benefiting from the Japanese experience., and  concluding  the proposed strategies for enforcement of such relations.

 

 The Asian continent was the point of origin for most of the elements that defined many cultures Arab Japanese and Chinese etc.

   And the pre modern legacy of relations among people in the Asian continent has always involved more than traditions of formal diplomacy including  .( Gordon Andrew ,A modern History of Japan from tokogawa times to the present, (Harvard university)  ,oxford university press , 2003)

Following the strategic changes ,by the end of the cold war , the GCC countries   entered  a phase of new regional and international changes and concerns.  wars that took place in the area, such as  the war of liberating Kuwait from the Iraqi invasion in 1991, and the third Gulf war in 2003 made most of the countries, including Gulf and Asian ones, confront the new regional situation, re-arrange their priorities, and draw their policies in the light of these new regional dimensions.

 

 The specific dimensions of formulating  the strategy of Kuwait’s relation with Asian countries , and Japan in particular via  a combination of  economic diplomacy and heading towards the east.

 

  As economy plays a vital role in enhancing international ties, the importance of reinforcing the economic dimensions  in Kuwaiti foreign  relations which  became more apparent during Kuwait’s presidency of the GCC countries in 2003-2004.

 

The year 2004 witnessed the first phase of the economic trend in Kuwait’s foreign  policy via the  Asian tour of H.R.H. the Amir Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmed Al Sabah  when he was the Prime Minister ,  He accompanied several officials and businessmen with him to benefit from the experiences of the Asian countries, and to benefit from their  experience , particularly the upcoming Asian powers. The trip drew a new trend in relations with several Eastern Asian countries and participated in enhancing partnership with upcoming Asian powers. Meetings between the Kuwaiti delegation and its Asian counterparts provided opportunities for discussion regarding removing trade  obstacles, and building bridges of cooperation between Kuwait and Asian countries. Heading to the east for re-exploration of the Asian dimension falls within the frame of diversifying options and protecting interests. This trend continues till date, and Kuwait is diplomatically present in Asian political and economic forums, ie. the Asian Cooperation Forum.

 

 

The phase of heading toward the east, which included Japan, China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand, reflected Kuwait’s insistence upon restoration of its economical position as a distinguished investment and financial centre in the region, as it was In the seventies and eighties before its diminished by security issues that took place in the area, most significant of which is the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, which made security concerns dominate other priorities on top of which are economy and development. The time of the visit, as I stated before, was significant as it took place during Kuwait’s periodical presidency of the GCC countries (2) (2004)

 

And the term “ heading east” is not only used by political entities outside the East-Asian matrix but is used by the East-Asian countries themselves. India used it to refer to its foreign policy after the absence of its strategic soviet ally (3). The term is also used in the literature  of the Japanese foreign policy, which is the subject of the study, to refer to a new trend related to deeper strategic ties and cooperation with East-Asian countries (4). The idea of heading towards the east crystallized in several forms and started to be discussed among Gulf elites. Kuwait’s initiation of the phase of economic diplomacy coincided with its periodical presidency of the GCC countries.

 

Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi held a meeting with Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister of the State of Kuwait at the Prime Minister`s Official Residence.

At the meeting, against the backdrop of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASD) setting its base in Kuwait to engage in air transportation duties on its mission for the reconstruction assistance to Iraq, Prime Minister Koizumi expressed his gratitude by saying, "Japan is receiving warm assistance and due consideration from Kuwait." To this, Prime Minister Sabah said, "Kuwait has finally stabilized with the collapse of the Hussein Administration. We appreciate the humanitarian assistance provided by the Japanese Self-Defense Forces (SDF) in Iraq, and expect that the Japanese Government will maintain the current policy regarding the dispatch of the SDF."

Furthermore, Prime Minister Sabah shared his view by saying, "The security situation in Iraq is moving towards stability," to which Prime Minister Koizumi noted, "In the future, I expect to see assistance provided to Iraq from the private sector."

 

Source : http://www.kantei.go.jp/foreign/koizumiphoto/2004/07/13kuwait_e.html

 

 

 

Japan was included in the visit, and this reflects its importance. , In recent years, the Kuwaiti Japanese relation entered a new phase, which is distinguished of continuous and strong cooperation. This was enforced through the important position of Japan as the second economic power worldwide in one hand, and the great effect of the GCC countries as the most important exporters of oil.

 

Kuwait’s relation with Japan continued to develop till it became the strongest among other Eastern countries. The year 2007 (6) witnessed signing “Kuwait and Tokyo Declaration” to support building economic bridges between Kuwait and Japan, in to crown the Kuwaiti economic activities in East-Asian countries. It represents the beginning of mutual work on the level of political and economic decision makers in both countries to reach agreement on various issues of concern for both countries.

 

Kuwaiti Japanese Relations from a Historical Point of View:

 

There is no doubt that the historical heritage of the Gulf area in general, its relation with Japan, east and middle Asian countries, and its distinguished location made it an important station for commercial communication between the east and Gulf countries.

 

A- The Year 1880 and the Phase of Seeking Economic Opportunities in the Gulf Area.

Japanese-Gulf relations date back to the year 1880 which coincided with the Japanese decision to get out of the period of economic and political isolation (the EDO) to the age of economic openness (MIJI) (7) leading to its openness to the world. This trend began through the comprehensive reform of Japanese entities, and perform exploration visits to several countries including the Gulf area to obtain economic opportunities.(8). The most significant journey was that of the Japanese Prime Minister Masaharo Ushida, which covered many Gulf stations including Bushehr port, Sultanate of Oman, Basra, Baghdad and Iran. Visits continued till the area of prosperity of Kuwaiti diamond trade.

 

Relations and trips continued and were reinforced in the year 1929 when the Gulf countries became the attracting centre of the Asian merchants pushed with the desire to explore the area. They sent commissioners to explore the economic needs, and the demand on the new product of cultured pearls. The most significant visit was performed by the well-known Japanese pearl trader Miki Moto as a commissioner (9) to Bahrain to study the pearl markets of the Gulf and methods of marketing cultural pearl technology.

 

All the above highlights the historical heritage of the Gulf region in its relation with Japan and East-Asian countries. Japan’s location made it an important station for communication between the Eastern countries and the Gulf. After oil was discovered in the Gulf  region, the core of economic relations between Japan and the Gulf countries shifted from pearl to oil. After the 2nd world war, Japanese companies returned to the Gulf with the economic and commercial interests as a priority to benefit from oil surplus.

 

The year 1961 and Exchanging Diplomatic Representation with the State of Kuwait:

Japan was among the first countries who diplomatically acknowledged the State of Kuwait upon its independence (10), when the Japanese Prime Minister at that time Mr. Hayeto Ikida acknowledged Kuwait as an independent state in the 8th of December 1961.

 

  Kuwait was keen to reinforce the economic aspect of its relation with Japan by hosting Japanese commercial delegations and missions shortly after its independence , and hold conferences for businessmen from the two countries (11). Since that time, commercial exchange continued between the two countries in several fields, most important of which are electrical appliances, vehicles and oil.

 

* Security Issues and Re-arrangement of Priorities:

* Japan’s Economic Partners in the Gulf Area between War and Peace

 

              The Middle East in general and the Gulf Area in particular witnessed important regional events during the eighties and nineties most significant of which was the revolution that removed an important economic ally and partner of Japan i.e the Shah of Iran in the beginning of the year 1979. The second important event was the war between Japan’s economic partners Iraq and Iran and the effect on  oil supplies ,from 1980-1988. This pushed Japan to try to secure other commercial replacement partners by reinforcing its relations with oil producing countries in the area, including Kuwait.

 

 

 

Post invasion period ..the transition from  security oriented to development diplomacy.

The year 1990  witnessed another military event in the Gulf area, which is the Iraqi invasion of the State of Kuwait (12), which resulted in a great shift in foreign relations regionally and internationally. Since the first days of the invasion, the spokesman of the Japanese government issued a declaration requesting Iraq’s immediate and non-conditioned withdrawal from the Kuwaiti territories upon the issuance of the resolution of the Security Council No. 661, expressing Japan’s intention to impose certain procedures including freezing all the commercial relations with Iraq and aids allocated for it.

 

The Gulf war represented a turning point in the Japanese stance regarding participating in the peace keeping process and aroused a controversy in the Japanese public opinion, the government and the parliament regarding the role of Japan in international security affairs (13). Upon the Iraqi invasion of the State of Kuwait, the secretary general of the liberal party “Ozawa” urged the Japanese government to submit a law proposal to the parliament to send Japanese forces abroad. Japan offered 13 billion dollars to support the international efforts o liberating Kuwait. The third Gulf war in 2003 continued the new course of the Japanese foreign policy in dealing with crisis and wars via its participation of human aid efforts. This copes with the Kuwait role in crisis and wars. The most outstanding example of this is the human aid operation centre in Kuwait which is specialized in providing aid to the Iraqi people. . As stated above, the Japanese stance during the events of the Gulf has its effects in directing the Japanese policy toward the area. This was made clear in its sending a military force to Iraq to perform works of civilian and humanitarian nature. We can not also ignore the internal change represented in the Japanese efforts for legislative modification concerning security issues. The Japanese constitution does not allow for military intervention.  Analysts considered this phase to be a phase of re-organizing priorities as Japan was interested in shaping out its security role outside its borders. The above incidents clarify that the security issues of the Gulf area during the war of 2003 played a role in highlighting the peaceful type and the humanitarian aspect of the Japanese as well as the Kuwaiti foreign policy, via the establishment of human aid centres.

 

After the above mentioned events, both Kuwait and Japan tried to enter into the phase of economic development and political stability, taking into consideration that Japan produces one seventh of international GDP, and its imports and exports represent 10% of the total international imports and exports, with a population of 120 million, but still lacks the sources of power necessary for its economy and its society.(14)

 

Kuwait has enough oil to secure Japanese needs of power, and GCC countries own more than 40% of the global oil reserve. Therefore, the view of the two parties, i.e. Japan and Kuwait is based on mutual interests. (15)

 

Following   the Kuwaiti - Japanese dialogue in the recent period touch a clear interest of both parties in cooperation in the field of energy  and economy, which became the two basic incentives of the Japanese-Kuwaiti diplomacy. The tour of the Prime Minister Shitzo Aby in the Gulf area (16) and the visit of the Kuwaiti Prime Minister to Japan, which we shall detail later, both are part of the two countries’ efforts to play an effective diplomatic role in the area. Tokyo obtains the trust of the Arab countries as a partner in the peace process. At the same time, it depends on oil producing countries to secure Japanese needs of power, including Kuwait. During the first visit of a Japanese prime minister to Kuwait Mr. Shizo Aby stated that his tour supports Japan’s dependence of the oil of the Middle East in view of the increasing economic growth o both China and India. This urged Tokyo to enhance its role in the Gulf and to sign a free trade agreement with oil producing countries. The delegation that accompanied the Japanese Prime Minister included 137 businessmen, and reflects Japan’s interest in the economic aspect.  The Prime Minister of Japan and his accompanying delegation met with H.R.H. the Amir, the Crown Prince, the Deputy Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Interior and the Minister of Defence, and expressed his happiness with the friendship relationships that tie Kuwait and Japan.

2004 The Fourth Conference of Kuwaiti Ambassadors  Approves “the Economic Diplomacy”. , Kuwait witnessed the conclusion of the fourth conference of the heads of diplomatic missions abroad, by approving what was unanimously called “the Economic Diplomacy”. The Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Sheikh Dr. Mohammed Al-Sabah said to the sixty two ambassadors participating in the conference “You will shoulder the great deal of responsibility of marketing Kuwait abroad, and opening new economic horizons with other countries worldwide, in addition to opening the roads before the private sector to take a strong position in the international markets”. He explained that “the great objective of this diplomacy is to use the Kuwaiti investment abroad in an effective manner and protecting it through agreements performed through Kuwaiti diplomacy. He also concentrated on giving priority to the economic file after the removal of the security concern formed by the previous Iraqi regime, in addition to the importance of Gulf cooperation particularly in the field of security and combating terrorism

 

 

 

·       The Year 2007 and the Kuwaiti-Japanese Declaration:

             Invited by  of the Prime Minister of Japan Mr. Yaso Fokoda, H.E. Sheikh Naser Al-Muhammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah, the Head of the Council of Ministers performed an official visit to Japan accompanied by a high-level delegation during the period from 26-29 July 2007.

 

On the level of Kuwaiti-Japanese cooperation, the city of Tokyo witnessed the declaration of cooperation between Kuwait and Japan this year. Through the mutual declaration, Kuwait highly appreciated the stable positive Japanese stance toward Kuwait and its continuous efforts to enforce its relation with Japan. The two parties agreed upon enhancing their mutual ties.

The main points covered in the meeting of Sheikh Naser Al-Muhammed and the Japanese Prime Minister Yaso Fokoda were as follows:

 

1- On the level of foreign policy, the two sides expressed their support of reforming the United Nations Organization, including the expansion of the membership of both permanent and non-permanent members in the security council. The two parties signed a memorandum of establishing a joint committee between the two governments to enhance cooperation in different fields. Therefore, Kuwait is the fourth GCC country that establishes such committee with Japan after the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. The meeting also included a review of the historical bilateral relations since 1961 and the positive effects achieved by the visit of H.H. the Amir to Japan in 2004.

 

2- In the oil field, the two parties agreed upon the importance of the stability of the oil market. Kuwait announced its abidance to provide petroleum  supply to Japan. It is worth mentioning that Japan’s import of the Kuwaiti oil in the year 2008 amounted to 318 thousand barrels daily (KUNA). The two parties agreed upon supporting projects related to maintaining power in addition to modernizing oil industry. During his meeting with Sheikh Naser Al-Mohammed, the Prime Minister of Japan expressed his worries regarding the current level of oil prices and its effects on both the producers and the consumers. The Kuwaiti Prime Minister promised that Kuwait shall continue to work with Japan to guarantee that oil is a trusted source of power, and that oil is the corner stone in the relation between Kuwait and Japan as Kuwait is the fourth producer of the crude oil among the OPEC organization members.

It is worthy mentioning that the commercial relations that started between the two countries since the mid-fifties were based upon importing clothes, electrical appliances and vehicles .. The cooperation between the two countries was enhanced by the establishment of the Arabian oil company in Tokyo in 1958. this was followed by the mutual agreement between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in the oil field. The “Arabian Oil Co.” managed to discover oil in January 1960, and started its production in 1961. “Arabian Oil Company” participated in the development efforts where it established Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research in January 1967, in addition to providing educational scholarships for Kuwaiti students to study in Japan or the United States, since April 1974. It also participated in the establishment of the Kuwaiti Japanese Society in 1965, and the Japanese Cooperation Centre for the Middle East in 1973.

 

3- As for the free trade agreement, the declaration stated the insistence on continuing the negotiations of free trade issue between Japan and the GCC countries. The Kuwaiti side expressed its desire to start negotiations to reach an agreement on mutual enhancement and protection of investments between both countries.

 

4- As for cooperation in the field of environment, the Japanese Kuwaiti cooperation started in environmental issues and the transfer of technology in December 2002. One of the achievements of such cooperation was the rehabilitation of the environment of Kuwait bay. Kuwait expressed its appreciation of the Japanese initiative regarding promoting “the cooler earth”. In this concern, the two parties agreed upon concentration of efforts on minimizing the level of global warming emission worldwide. Kuwait promised to pay US 150 million for climate change efforts including withdrawal and storage of carbon when this was announced in Riyadh OPEC Conference in November 2007.

 

5- In the field of education the Japanese Kuwaiti declaration also reinforced the execution of environmental education program, and expanding it in Kuwait, in addition to exchanging students between the two countries, training programs for Kuwaiti teachers from the Japanese government, and a course in the Japanese language in the community centre in Kuwait and the round table hosted by the Japanese embassy in Kuwait. The Kuwaiti side praised the Japanese initiative presented through the summit of Hokaido Toyako, and the fourth Tokyo conference concerned with the African development through the Japanese help. The Japanese side also expressed their appreciation of the active Kuwaiti help toward development of countries like the efforts of Kuwait Development Fund and the Kuwaiti red crescent.

 

6- On the regional level, the two countries renewed their support of the issues of the Middle East, and the great importance of its stability for the world. The Kuwait side expressed its appreciation of the Japanese aids in the re-construction of Iraq and its stability. The Japanese side expressed its deep appreciation of the cooperation of the State of Kuwait with Japan in submitting humanitarian aid and re-construction of Iraq. The two sides expressed the importance of reaching a comprehensive and just peace. In addition Kuwait expressed its appreciation of the role of Japan in the Middle East peace process, including the initiative titled “peace and prosperity track”. This initiation introduced a new view of the peace process.

 

7- As for the mass destruction weapons, the stance of both Japan and Kuwait are identical regarding the danger of mass destruction weapons and their spread, their means of transportation and the threat they form against peace. The two sides discussed the Iranian nuclear file, and reassured the importance of urging all countries of the Middle East to sign the treaty of prohibiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and making the Middle East an area that is void of all types of mass destruction weapons. The visit also included mutual talks between H.E. Sheikh Naser, and the Japanese defence minister Mr. Shigiro Ishiba, during which Tokyo expressed its gratitude for Kuwait’s help in mobilizing the Japanese forces into Iraq.

 

8- as for NGOs ,  the civil society organizations, H.E. the Prime Minister, during his visit to Japan met with the head of the Kuwaiti Japanese Society Mr. Kiashi Konaga to upgrade the level of the bilateral relation.

 

 

(and In April, Japan celebrated the export of the first oil shipment to Japan in the attendance of the late Amir of the State of Kuwait Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salem, and His Majesty King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz, King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia).(19) KUNA, www.kuna.org.kw

 

 

 

Lessons learned

 

Kuwait capitalizes on the growing impact of personal or direct diplomacy which basically depends on visits of heads of state and heads of government ,foreign ministers envoys and other senior leaders promoting the country`s image and trying to improve bilateral relations . External relations  on the other hand develop through experience of countries, and differ with different mechanism of local and international political and economic decisions. Therefore, the report handled an important part of the diplomatic heritage upon which the mutual relations are based, through a historical review of the relations between Japan and the Gulf countries, and introducing new concepts and dimensions after Kuwait started to apply the economic diplomacy on the Japanese Gulf relations in general and the Japanese Kuwaiti relations in particular. This was made clear through highlighting the effectiveness of the Kuwaiti foreign policy in setting the rules of merging the political course with economy, in addition to transferring the course of diplomacy towards the east.

The following are  lessons learnt from the Eastern countries experience, particularly Japan:

1-   Japan is considered  as a model of the countries that made crisis an incentive for economic and technological excellence, and an example to draw upon in the good management of its foreign aids granted to other countries, particularly that such aid is conditioned with the good management of the receiving country and their good  abilities in executing project granted to them. This reflects the important role played by the economic factors in forming  foreign policy .

2-   The need to  Benefit from the Japanese modernization experience, in addition to benefiting from its experience in the field of privatization. Japan was among the first countries in the world that made privatization an official policy, via achieving the balance between the public and the private sector.

3-   The need to  Benefit from the Japanese interest in the Gulf area, and suppor the unification of both the Japanese and Kuwaiti stances regarding the importance of economic tools in the foreign policy and the increase of the economic power, which is related to the increase of mutual economic dependency among countries. Therefore, we should benefit from the introduced Japanese initiatives, particularly those related to training and development in the scientific and technical fields. The partnership relations should be enhanced through the technical training centers between Kuwait and Japan.

4-   The need to benefit from  administrative reform factor  under the umbrella of building relations with the Asian countries, and benefiting from the experiences of these countries that managed to successfully implement management   reform through what is known as the “gradual reform” ,  which is applied from within the administrative entity, It is characterized  as being time consuming  in the  implementation  phase, but its result is effective on the long run. Among the Asian countries that applied this are Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia. The other form of reform is “shock reform”. Shock reform is the type of reform followed by Japan after the second world war, represented in replacement of the old administrative elements with other younger elements that are technically and academically well qualified.

5-   Supporting the main basis upon which the declaration of Kuwait and Japan was based, and keenness to benefit from the Japanese experience in training Kuwaiti citizens in the oil fields and  technical sectors, in addition to common  interest in reforming the entities of the United Nations, resuming the talks of free trade, cooperation in the field of education and being keen to exert mutual efforts for keeping the area free of weapons of  mass destruction .

6-supporting  the development  in various fields, especially commercial and economic relations, and commended the role played by the Kuwaiti-Japanese Businessmen Committee

 

  the development of the Japanese stance toward the issues of the area is paralleled by the development of the Kuwait’s role towards Japan and Asia. Both are connected to the ability and readiness of the two countries to engage  economic and political achievements in their agenda .

3-           Benefiting from the Japanese diplomatic theories regarding the activation of peace in the area, such as ensuring prosperity through diplomacy , which is called “the corridor of peace and prosperity” suggested by Taro Aso, the former Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs in Japan. (www.mofa.go.jp)

 

 

 



 

 

 

 


المصادر:

([1]) وسيصادف عام 2011 ذكرى مرور خمسين عاما على  العلاقات اليابانية الكويتية (كونا)

(2) تولت الكويت الرئاسة الدورية لمجلس التعاون 2003 و2004 ، المصدر وزارة الخارجية الكويتية،التقرير السنوي 2004، واجتمع قادة الخليج في قصر بيان في دولة الكويت في الفترة من 21 إلى 22 ديسمبر عام 2003 الاجتماع الدوري الرابع والعشرين بعد أن تسلمت الكويت الرئاسة من مملكة البحرين

(3) د عبدالله المدني ـ الخليج وسياسة التوجه شرقاً ـ مركز الخليج للأبحاث.

(4) د عبدالله المدني ـ الخليج وسياسة التوجه شرقاً ـ المصدر السابق.

(5) الخميـس 16من ذي القعـدة 1424 هـ 8 يناير 2004 العدد 9172.

http://www.asharqalawsat.com/details.asp?section=4&article=211676&issueno=9172

المؤتمر الرابع للسفراء الكويتيين في الخارج يقر "الدبلوماسية الاقتصادية" اختتمت في الكويت أمس أعمال المؤتمر الرابع لرؤساء البعثات الدبلوماسية في الخارج بإقرار ما اتفق على تسميته بـ«الدبلوماسية الاقتصادية». وقال نائب رئيس مجلس الوزراء ووزير الخارجية الدكتور الشيخ محمد الصباح لـ62 سفيرا كويتيا يشاركون في المؤتمر «إنكم ستتحملون العبء الأكبر من مسؤولية تسويق الكويت في الخارج وفتح آفاق اقتصادية مع دول العالم، إضافة إلى فتح طريق للقطاع الخاص للانطلاق بقوة في الأسواق العالمية». وأوضح «أن الهدف الأكبر من هذه الدبلوماسية هو استغلال الاستثمار الكويتي في الخارج بشكل أفضل وحمايته من خلال الاتفاقيات التي تبرمها الدبلوماسية الكويتية». تركز أيضا على إعطاء الأولوية للملف الاقتصادي بعد زوال الخطر الأمني الذي كان يمثله النظام العراقي السابق، إضافة إلى أهمية التعاون الخليجي لاسيما في مجال الأمن ومكافحة «الإرهاب».

(6)the gulf research center –feb issue 4 – www.grc.aejapan and the gulf region – from the first encounter to present sachi sakanashi senior researcher > jime center، ieej Japan)

(7) المصدر السابق.

[1] (the gulf research center –feb issue 4 – www.grc.aejapan and the gulf region – from the first encounter to present sachi sakanashi senior researcher > jime center، ieej japan) (عام 1853 وصول الكومودور بيري لليابان بسفينة كوروفون الحربية لإرغام اليابان على توقيع الاتفاقية مع الولايات المتحدة one sized most favored nation to the us )

(8) واسمه "كاتو" , وقد قامت  حكومة الميجي بارسال يابانيين للخارج لجمع معلومات عن العالم الخارجي للبحث عن مكان مناسب في المجتمع الدولي new incorporated sense of nationalism

(9) الموقع  الالكتروني للسفارة اليابانية في الكويت - قرر رئيس مجلس الوزراء الياباني الأسبق السيد هايتو ايكيدا الاعتراف بالكويت كدولة مستقلة في 8 ديسمبر 1961 والقبول بتبادل السفراء. وتم افتتاح السفارة اليابانية بالكويت في مارس عام 1963. ولم يؤثر الاحتجاج العراقي آنذاك على قرار اليابان التبادل الدبلوماسي مع الكويت. وسيصادف عام 2011 ذكرى مرور خمسين عاما على الدبلوماسية إنشاء العلاقات اليابانية الكويتية(كونا)

(10) فقد وصلت الكويت منذ 1961 بعثة تجارية يابانية لدراسة السوق في دول الخليج. وبعثة أيضاً من اتحاد اليابان للمنظمات الاقتصادية وبعثات من المركز التعاون الياباني للشرق الأوسط .

(11) المصدر السابق 55-56، سونوكو سوياما، العلاقات بين دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي واليابان، أوراق بحثية (دبي مركز الخليج للأبحاث 2004) ص 30.

(12) المصدر السابق.

(13) سونوكو سوياما، العلاقات بين دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي واليابان، أوراق بحثية (دبي مركز الخليج للابحاث 2004 ـ ص 30.

(14) سونوكو سوياما، العلاقات بين دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي واليابان، أوراق بحثية (دبي مركز الخليج للابحاث 2004 ـ ص 11.

(15) تقرير صحيفة التايمز اليابانية ـ مجلة المجلة 10/05/2007

http://www.al-majalla.com/SiteImages/Files/174.jpg

(16) واحتفلت في ابريل بتصدير أول شحنه نفط لليابان بحضور صاحب السمو المغفور له أمير دولة الكويت الشيخ عبدالله السالم،وصاحب الجلالة الملك سعود بن عبد العزيز ملك السعودية.

(17) كونا www.kuna.org.kw

 

Refrences:

(1) The year 2011 shall coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the Japanese Kuwaiti relations (KUNA).

(2) Kuwait held the periodical presidency of the GCC countries during the year 2003-2004. Source: Kuwait Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Annual Report 2004. The GCC leaders met in Kuwait in Bayan Palace during the period from 21-22 December 2003 in their twenty fourth periodical meeting after Kuwait received the presidency from Bahrain.

(3) Dr. Abdullah Al-Madani – the Gulf and the Policy of Heading East – Gulf Research Centre

(4) Dr. Abdullah Al-Madani – the Gulf and the Policy of Heading East – the previous source

(5) Thursday, 16th of Dhul Qaida 1424 A.H., 8th of January 2004, issue No. 9172

http://www.asharqalawsat.com/details.asp?section=4&article=211676&issueno=9172

The Fourth Conference of Kuwaiti Ambassadors  Approves “the Economic Diplomacy”. , Kuwait witnessed the conclusion of the fourth conference of the heads of diplomatic missions abroad, by approving what was unanimously called “the Economic Diplomacy”. The Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Sheikh Dr. Mohammed Al-Sabah said to the sixty two ambassadors participating in the conference “You will shoulder the great deal of responsibility of marketing Kuwait abroad, and opening new economic horizons with other countries worldwide, in addition to opening the roads before the private sector to take a strong position in the international markets”. He explained that “the great objective of this diplomacy is to use the Kuwaiti investment abroad in an effective manner and protecting it through agreements performed through Kuwaiti diplomacy. He also concentrated on giving priority to the economic file after the removal of the security concern formed by the previous Iraqi regime, in addition to the importance of Gulf cooperation particularly in the field of security and combating terrorism .

(6)the gulf research center –feb issue 4 – www.grc.aejapan and the gulf region – from the first encounter to present sachi sakanashi senior researcher > jime center، ieej Japan)

(7) Ibid.

the gulf research center –feb issue 4 – www.grc.aejapan and the gulf region – from the first encounter to present sachi sakanashi senior researcher > jime center، ieej japan) In 1853 the Commodore Berry reached Japan in the Military ship “Korophone” to force Japan sign an agreement with the US (one sized most favored nation to the US).

(8) The Miji government sent Japanese people abroad to collect information about the external world, and to find the proper place for Japan in the international community (New incorporated sense of nationalism).

(9) offiicial website of the Japanese embassy in Kuwait – The Ex-Japanese Prime Minister Mr. Hito Ikida confirmed the acknowledgement of Kuwait as an independent country in 1961 and the acceptance of exchanging ambassadors with it. The Japanese embassy was opened in Kuwait in March of 1963. the Iraqi objection at that time did not affect the Japanese decision of diplomatic exchange with Kuwait. (1) The year 2011 shall coincide with the fifties anniversary of the Japanese Kuwaiti relations (KUNA).

ٍ(10) Since 1961 a commercial mission reached Kuwait to study the market in the Gulf countries, in addition to another mission from the Japanese Union for Economic Organizations, and the missions from the Middle East Japanese Cooperation Centre.

(11) The previous source, 55-56, Sonoko Suwayama, Relations between GCC Countries and Japan, Research Papers (Dubai, Gulf Research Centre 2004) page 30

(12) Ibid.

(13) Sonoko Suwayama, Relations between GCC Countries and Japan, Research Papers (Dubai, Gulf Research Centre 2004- page 30

(14) Sonoko Suwayama, Relations between GCC Countries and Japan, Research Papers (Dubai, Gulf Research Centre 2004- page 11

Report of the Japanese Times Newspapers – Al-Majalla Magazine 10/05/2007

http://www.al-majalla.com/SiteImages/Files/174.jpg

(and In April, Kuwait celebrated the export of the first oil shipment to Japan in the attendance of the late Amir of the State of Kuwait Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salem, and His Majesty King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz, King of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia).

(17) KUNA, www.kuna.org.kw

 

 

 

Basic data ;

Diplomatic Relations:

Established in December 1961

Japanese Nationals:

198 (as of Oct. `08)

Trade with Japan (in US Dollars):

Exports: million (crude oil, petroleum products)

Imports: million (motor vehicle, machinery, electric equipment)

Direct Investment from Japan:

Cumulative total from 1951 to 2004: 11 million USD

Japan`s Economic Cooperation:

Grants: 294 million Yen

Technical corporation: 935 million Yen

Source : http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/middle_e/kuwait/index.html

 

 

As a contribution in science and technology, AOC established Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) in 1967. Even after the transfer of KISR to the Kuwait government in 1972, AOC continued to support KISR for exchange of technology and manpower between KISR and the Japanese counterparts. Nowadays, KISR has gained its reputation as a leading research institute in the Gulf area. KISR presently undertakes the most advanced studies and researches and extends its research area to applied science for modernization of industry, protection of environment and development & conservation of natural resources

http://www.aoc.co.jp/e/bri/bridging.html

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